Understanding Genre
WHAT IS A GENRE?

According to Classic Oxford Learner’s Thesaurus © Oxford University Press, 2008, the genre is defined as “a particular style or type of literature, art, music or movies can be Recognized That Because of its special features.” So the genre is a style or type of literature, art, music or a particular movie that can be recognized or distinguished as his trademark. Relation to language, genre can be defined as a type of text. Each text type has its own characteristics, therefore easy to recognize what type of text being read or written one. Characteristic of an existing text of a general nature, some are associated with culture.


Examples of functional text of the invitation letter. Letter style wedding invitations different Indonesian style invitation letter (invitation) Java language and different with the English style of the invitation letter. For some types of text that are art some are characterized by almost the same and some are completely different. Narrative text styles, for example, there are several similar characteristics between the Indonesian with English. But the style of writing works of literary art “song” would only be better understood and expressed maximally with the Java language.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEXT TO FOLLOW THE RULES OF ENGLISH TEXT GENRE

If we learn English, of the type the text that we learn is the type of English text. We must learn to read, write, listen or speak the English text – the text of which really exist in English-speaking community which is recognized as the standard, in this case Britain, America and Australia. Sometimes we need a little or a lot of studying the cultural background to the creation of types of text.

For example, one wanted to apply for a job in a foreign company. He has to creating a resume or curriculum vitae or job history. A resume in English is a typical type of text. He must know what needs to be and need not be included in the resume. Lengkapan lack necessary information or errors will result in the inclusion of a person’s ability has not been seen or even considered unprofessional. For this, he must understand that Western educated society has a culture of everything “precise”, exactly in expressing or describing something. brief, dense but clear and cover everything.

TEXT FEATURES WHEN IS A GOOD GOAL ACHIEVABLE TEXT

One of the criteria for a good text is that if the purpose of making the text work well. If we make the text of the announcement (announcement) and it turns out many people who still need to ask for clarity or even many people who misunderstood, means the text that we make does not work properly. And do not forget, the English text that we make are consistent with the plain text in English culture. Not just Indonesian language text translated into English. The language and structure of the text should be acceptable, understood in the context of English culture, not the Indonesian language. Because, why would we make the English text when the only people who understand Bahasa Indonesia? Would not it be better to speak Indonesian, the language at least acceptable, by our own.

TEXT EACH HAVE OWN TEXT STRUCTURE

Each text type has its own text structure (Note: the structure of the text rather than grammar). Like buildings, each building type has its own building structure. Each building has its own building parts. A building such as classrooms or home needs to have a foundation, walls and roof. The parts of a building for the toilet or kitchen is different from the classroom. And all the buildings have a sequence in the making.

Parts of the structure regards the genre, namely:

-Procedure Text

-Recount Text

-Narrative Text

-Descriptive Text

-Discussion Text

-Analytical Exposition Text

-Report Text

-Hortatory Exposition Text

-Explanation Text

-News Item Text

-Anecdote Text

PROCEDURE TEXT
Definition:

Procedure is the set of steps which should be completed in the right sequence to get the goal. In our daily life, we often have to perform some steps to make or get something done. For example, early in the morning, you help your mother prepare cups of tea for all members of your family. In making cups of tea, you have to follow certain procedure in order to get a nice drink. Most of our daily activities are related with procedures. That is why, you should understand what a procedure text is, how to make and use it. The generic structure of procedure has three principal components namely (1) the goal, (2) materials and (3) steps.

Structure:

1. Goal : Title of the text (especially for a recipe)
2. Materials : Optional, not for all procedural texts
3. Steps : a series steps oriented to achieving the Goal

Purpose:

To describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of action or steps. or the communicative purpose is to tell the steps of making or doing something.

Language Feature :

Using temporal conjunction

Using action verb

Using imperative sentence

Using Simple Present Tense

Example:

How to charge hand phone battery
prepare your :
- hand phone
- battery charger

Steps :
1. Connect the charger to your hand phone, the flash symbol on the charger plug must face upward.
2. W ait until the battery icon appears on the screen.
3. Charge the battery approximately 5 hours or until the battery icon indicates that the battery is fully charged.
4. Remove the charger by pulling out from your hand phone.

RECOUNT TEXT

Definition:

Text recount is the kind of text that describe or tell the event or events that have been passed, such as accidents, reports of activities, visits to a place, or other experiences.

Structure:

1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time

2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past

3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story

Language Feature:

• Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc

• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc

• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc

• Using action verb; look, go, change, etc

• Using simple past tense

Example:

RA Kartini
Every April 21, people in Indonesia commemorate the Kartini day. It is
a beautiful day for the woman because we celebrate the birth of great
lady, RA. Kartini. Everyone knows who kartini is. She is our national
heroine and a great lady with the bright idea.
Kartini was born in 1879, April 21 in Mayong Jepara. Her father was
RMAA. Sosroningrat, Wedana (assistant of head of regency) in Mayong.
Her mother, MA Ngasirah was a girl from Teluk Awur village in Jepara.
As the daughter of a noble family, she felt luck because she got more
than the ordinary people got. She got better education than other
worse and she finally passed away on September 17, 1904 on her 25 years old.

Now Kartini has gone. But her spirit and dream will always be in our
heart. Nowadays Indonesian women progress is influenced by Kartini’s
spirit stated on collection of letter “Habis gelap terbitlah terang” .

NARRATIVE TEXT

Definition:

Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers.

Structure:

1. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place

2. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with

3. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises, better or worse

 

Language Features:

Using processes verbs

Using temporal conjunction

Using Simple Past Tense

Example:

“Monkey and Crocodile”

One day a monkey wanted to cross a river. He saw a crocodile in the river, so he asked the crocodile to take him across the other side. The crocodile told the monkey to jump on its back. Then the crocodile swam down the river.
Now, the crocodile was very hungry, so when it was in the middle of the river, it stopped and said to the monkey, ”Monkey, my father is very sick. He must eat the heart of the monkey. Then he will be strong again.”
The monkey thought for a while. Then he told the crocodile to swim back to the river bank.
“What’s for?” asked the crocodile.
“Because I didn’t bring my heart with me,” said the monkey. “I left it under the tree, near some coconuts.”
So, the crocodile turned around and swam back to the bank of the river. As soon as they reached the river bank, the monkey jumped off the crocodile’s back and climbed up to the top of a tree.
“Where is your heart?” asked the crocodile.
“You are foolish,” the monkey said to the crocodile. “Now I am free and you have nothing.”
The monkey told the crocodile not to try to fool him again. The crocodile swam away, hungry.

DESCRIPTIVE TEXT

Definition:

Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.

Structure:

Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described.

Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.

Language Feature:

Using attributive and identifying process.
Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
Using simple present tense.

Example:

Singapore

Have you ever visited Singapore? Well, if you haven’t, let me tell you about Singapore. Singapore is an island city. Its population is about three millions people. Most Singaporeans live in high-rise apartments.

Uhm…Singapore is a beautiful city with lots of parks and open spaces. It is also a very clean city. You know, the business district is very modern, with lots of tall and new buildings.

Now, let me tell you about the old section of the city. In Chinatown, there are rows of old shop houses. The government buildings in Singapore are also very unique and antique. They date from the British colonial days.
Shopping! Wow, this is the part that I like very much! Singapore is famous for its many good shopping centers. Most of the goods are duty free. It’s a heaven for shoppers!

What about food? Uhmm ..yummy..yummy. It’s delicious. Singapore’s restaurants provide Chinese, Indian, Malay, and European food, and the prices are quite reasonable. I bet you’ll like it.

Well, since Singapore lies near the equatorial line, of course, it has a tropical climate, with a nice weather in both dry and rainy season.

DISCUSSION TEXT

Definition:

Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text.

Stucture:

Statement of issue; stating the issue which is to discussed
List of supporting points; presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue
List of contrastive point; presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point
Recommendation; stating the writer’ recommendation of the discours.

Language Feature:

Introducing category or generic participant
Using thinking verb; feel, hope, believe, etc
Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection; similarly, on the hand, however, etc
Using modalities; must, should, could, may, etc
Using adverbial of manner; deliberately, hopefully, etc

Example:

Giving Children Homework; Pro and Con

There are a lot of discussion as to whether children should be given homework or not. Is it enough for children having time to study at school or needing additional time in home for study after school time?

Some people claim that children do enough work in school already. They also argue that children have their hobbies which they want to do after school, such as sport or music. A further point they make is that a lot of homeworks are pointless and does not help the children learn at all.

However, there are also strong arguments against this point of view. Parents and teachers argue that it is important to find out whether children can work on their own without the support from the teacher. They say that the evening is a good time for children to sit down and think about what they have learned in school.

Furthermore they claim that the school day is too short to get anything done. It makes sense to send home tasks like independent reading or further writing task which do not need the teacher support.

ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT

Definition:

Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter.

Structure:

1. Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position

2. Arguments: Explaining the arguments to support the writer’s position

3. Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position

Language Features:

Using relational process

Using internal conjunction

Using causal conjunction

Using Simple Present Tense

Example:

SHOULD CHILDREN WEAR HATS AT SCHOOL?

I believe that you should always wear a hat at school when you are playing outside , to keep from getting sunburn .

Firstly, if you don’t wear a hat, you will get sunburn and a sunburn is painful.

Secondly, sunburn could lead to skin cancer. Sunburn can lead to health problems later in life. Many older people suffer from skin cancer which can kill them.

In my opinion all school students should wear hats.

REPORT TEXT

Definiton:

Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis

Structure :

1. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal, public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general

2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part , customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials

Language Feature:

Introducing group or general aspect

Using conditional logical connection; when, so, etc

Using simple present tense

Example:

For many years, many people believed that the cleverest animals after man were the chimpanzees. Now, however, there is proof that dolphins may be even cleverer than these big apes.Although a dolphin lives in the sea it is not a fish. It is a mammal. It is in many ways, therefore, like a human being.

Dolphins have a simple language. They are able to talk to one another. It may be possible for man to learn how to talk to dolphins. But this will not be easy because dolphins cannot hear the kind of sounds man can make. If man wants to talk to dolphins, therefore, he will have to make a third language which both he and the dolphins can understand.

Dolphins are also very friendly toward man. They often follow ships. There are many stories about dolphins guiding ships through difficult and dangerous water.

HORTATORY EXPOSITION TEXT

Definition:

a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way.

Structure:

1.Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation

Language Feature:

1. Focusing on the writer
2. Using abstract noun; policy, advantage, etc
3. Using action verb
4. Using thinking verb
5. Using modal adverb; certainly, surely, etc
6. Using temporal connective; firstly, secondly, etc
7. Using evaluative words; important, valuable, trustworthy, etc
8. Using passive voice
9. Using simple present tense

Example:

Water Makes Beautiful

Do you believe that water can make us beautiful? This function of water can be very good text in example of hortatory text. Bacalah contoh hortatory text berikut ini!
As we know that so much water in the world. There are many kinds of water. that can we consume every time.
Consume water can therapy of disease, because water that we consume with enough amounts and the right method can purify of poisons in our body.
The therapy of water can save water availability in the body until blood not experiencing more viscosity that can caused high blood.
Therapy of water can keep the beauty too. Skins is the out part that has contact with dirty air, sun light and pollutions. To keep the skin elasticity, water needed in the enough amounts to consume by us. Water can dampen of skin until not easy to dry and make crimp.
To keep the balancing of size body, water very needed. Infect, water can increasing metabolism and pressing of eat desire. Consume many water can filtrate much calories.
So, let’s consume water everyday minimal eight glasses to keep our healthy and beauty. But, the water must clean and from water source those hygienists. Find, buy and consume the best mineral water! And water here, the cleaning water

EXPLANATION TEXT

Definition:

a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural, social, scientific and cultural phenomena. Explanation text is to say ‘why’ and ‘how’ about the forming of the phenomena. It is often found in science, geography and history text books.

Structure :

General statement; stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.

Sequenced explanation; stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.

Language Feature:

Featuring generic participant; sun, rain, etc
Using chronological connection; to begin with, next, etc
Using passive voice pattern
Using simple present tense

Example:

Tsunami

The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour (“tsu”) and wave (“nami”). A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.

A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth’s crust can occur at plate boundaries.

Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.

As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.

Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.

NEWS ITEM TEXT

Definition:

a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important.

Structure:

1. Main event
2. Elaboration (background, participant, time, place)
3. Resource of information

Language Feature:

1. Focusing on circumstances
2. Using material process

Example:

Winning Award for Airport Toilet

Surabaya’s Juanda International Airport has won the Culture and Tourism Ministry’s 2009 toilet award, beating out 2007 winner Denpasar’s Ngurah Rai Airport, which now drops to fourth. Indonesia’s main gateway, Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, just outside Jakarta, moves up from fourth in 2007 to second, in the biennial “Sapta Pesona Clean Public Toilet Award”.

The award was first handed out in 2007, and has so far involved only international airports. Acting Culture and Tourism Minister Muhammad Nuh said he expected the award in future to also cover public toilets at tourist sites across the country.

“Granting the award to those running public toilets at tourist sites is expected to improve the quality of products and services, particularly in term of cleanliness . as part of efforts to enhance the image of national culture,” Nuh said during the award presentation ceremony.

ANECDOTE TEXT

Definition:

a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.

Structure:

1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Reaction
5. Coda

Language Feature:

1. Using exclamation words; it’s awful!, it’s wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense

Example:

Snake in the Bath

How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one, too!
We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap.

Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.
For an instant I stood there quite paralyzed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have leant over the bath to get a better look.
We found out latter that it was a black mamba, a poisonous kind of snake. It had obviously been fast asleep, curled up at the bottom of the nice warm water-pipe. It must have had an awful shock when the cold water came trickling down! But nothing to the shock I got! Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water.